Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition characterized by excessive friction in the hip joint from the presence of bony irregularities. These cause pain and decreased range of hip motion. The femoral head and acetabulum rub against each other, causing damage and pain to the hip joint. The damage can occur to the articular cartilage (the smooth white surface of the ball or socket) or the labral tissue (the lining of the edge of the socket).
Stress fractures of the hip are a break in the upper part of the thigh bone (femur) that fits into the socket of the hip joint. It can occur in any part of the hip, however, it mostly occurs just below the ball of the ball-and-socket hip joint called the femoral neck.
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in the elderly. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint called cartilage. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage becomes damaged and worn out, causing pain, swelling, stiffness and restricted movement in the affected joint. Although osteoarthritis may affect various joints including the hips, knees, hands, and spine, the hip joint is most commonly affected. Rarely, the disease may affect the shoulders, wrists, and feet.
The hip joint is one of the most important and flexible joints in the human body which allows us to walk, run, bend and perform physical activities. It is a ball (femoral head) and socket joint formed between the hip bone and femur (thighbone). It is surrounded by strong muscles and tough ligaments that prevent its dislocation.
For infants, changes in behavior, difficulty communicating, or refusal to eat can be taken as warning signs. During hip examination, the doctor may look for a compromised range of motion of the hip, the presence of uneven skin folds around the thigh, and leg-length differences. Depending on the patient’s age and condition, the doctor may also order an X-ray or ultrasound to confirm the diagnosis.
Avascular necrosis, also called osteonecrosis, is a condition in which bone death occurs because of inadequate blood supply to it. Lack of blood flow may occur when there is a fracture in the bone or a joint dislocation that may damage nearby blood vessels. Hip joint is most commonly affected; however, the knee and shoulder may also be involved.
Hip abductors are a major group of muscles found in the buttocks. It includes the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata muscles.
The hamstring is a group of three muscles that run along the back of the thigh from the hip to the knee. Hamstring injuries occur when these muscles are strained or pulled. They are common in dancers and athletes of all sorts including runners and those who play football, soccer, basketball, tennis, etc.