Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint. This degeneration of the cartilages leads to painful rubbing of the bones, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, resulting in restricted movements. Arthritis in the foot and ankle can occur due to fractures, dislocation, inflammatory disease, or congenital deformity.
Ankle dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones of the lower leg called the fibula and tibia get separated from the talus or ankle bone. This can cause serious damage to the nerves and ligaments surrounding the ankle, leading to a decline in strength and overall health of the leg.
An ankle ligament injury, also known as an ankle sprain, can be caused by a sudden twisting movement of the foot during any athletic event or during daily activities. When stretched beyond its limit, the ligament may partially or completely tear. The injury can range from mild to severe, depending on the condition of the injured ligament and the number of ligaments involved.
Morton’s neuroma refers to a nerve injury that occurs between the toes, usually the third and fourth toes. This causes pain and thickening of the nerve tissue.
The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping. Recreational sports that may cause Achilles rupture include tennis, football, basketball, and gymnastics.
A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint, or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump. Most commonly, it occurs when you participate in sports, or jump or run on a surface that is irregular.
The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As your feet bear the weight of your entire body, they are more prone to injury and pain. Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors on the foot. It is a common problem experienced by young athletes involved in various activities such as running and jumping.
The posterior tibial tendon passes through the ankle to attach the calf muscle with the bones of the midfoot. It provides stability to the arch and supports the foot while walking. Inflammation or a tear of this tendon as a result of injury may cause dysfunction, leading to pain and the development of a flatfoot.
Peroneal tendonitis is inflammation of the peroneal tendons in the ankle due to an acute or overuse injury. It is common in those participating in sports involving repeated ankle movement such as running.
A Jones fracture occurs when there is a break between the base and the shaft of the fifth metatarsal bone in your foot. This is a small region that receives limited blood supply and is prone to fracture. The fifth metatarsal is a long bone that is located on the outside of your foot and connects to the smallest toe. There are five metatarsal bones in each foot and the fifth is the one which is more commonly fractured.